I have always considered it of paramount importance that a medical doctor should also be a scientist.
If not a scientist, then at least a practicing medical doctor must have a scientific out look with a crit
That is how he or she will know of the importance of conducting a double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trials.
Science IS evidence based, anything else is quackery.
This is exactly a true physician knows why homeopathy, ayurveda, crystal therapy etc. do not work.
I keenly got involved into translational research at Johns Hopkins and was involved in gene therapy.
We were using adeno-viral vectors to transfer a specific gene into the RPE retinal cells in-vitro.
That work never got published as I moved to west coast to University of California, Irvine.
There I had a fruitful career of 2 years with 3 publications.
Here is one of the paper:
Inhibition of apoptosis in human retinal
pigment epithelial cells treated with
benzo(e)pyrene, a toxic component of
Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92868, USA.
To study the inhibitory effects of some agents or drugs (inhibitors) on benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P)-induced cell death and apoptosis on human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells in vitro.
ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with varying concentrations of different classes of inhibitors (calpain, benzyl isothiocyanate [BITC], simvastatin, epicatechin, genistein, resveratrol, and memantine) before B(e)P exposure. Cell viability (CV) was determined by a trypan blue dye-exclusion assay. Caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities were measured by fluorochrome assays. The production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) was measured with 2,7-dicholorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye assay.
At 30-microM concentrations, the genistein, resveratrol, and memantine inhibitors were able to reverse significantly the loss of cell viability, the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-9, and the production of ROS/RNS in ARPE-19 cell cultures. Memantine was the most potent and genistein was the least effective inhibitor in blocking the B(e)P-induced effects. Calpain, BITC, simvastatin, and epicatechin did not reverse the loss of cell viability in B(e)P-treated ARPE-19 cells. As a matter of fact, at the concentrations studied (15, 30, 45 microM), the BITC plus B(e)P-treated cultures showed significantly lower cell viability than the B(e)P-treated culture alone, suggesting BITC-related toxicity.
Genistein, resveratrol, and memantine can reverse the apoptosis and oxidant production generated by B(e)P, a toxic element of smoking. These inhibitors may be beneficial against retinal diseases associated with the loss of RPE cells.